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Neuroscientist: Memory evolved to help animals react appropriately to situations they encounter by drawing on the past experience of similar situations. But this does not require that animals perfectly recall every detail of all their experiences. Instead, to function well, memory should generalize from past experiences that are similar to the current one.

The neuroscientist’s statements, if true, most strongly support which of the following conclusions?

The neuroscientist’s statements, if true, most strongly support which of the following conclusions?

    A. At least some animals perfectly recall every detail of at least some past experiences.

    B. Perfectly recalling every detail of all their past experiences could help at least some animals react more appropriately than they otherwise would to new situations they encounter.

    C. Generalizing from past experiences requires clear memories of most if not all the details of those experiences.

    D. Recalling every detail of all past experiences would be incompatible with any ability to generalize from those experiences.

    E. Animals can often react more appropriately than they otherwise would to situations they encounter if they draw on generalizations from past experiences of similar situations.


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答案:
E

 style=";font-size:15px;font-family:Georgia-Bold;color:#000000;font-weight:bold">Argument Construction

Situation A neuroscientist claims that memory evolved to help animals learn how to react appropriately by generalizing from past experiences but that this does not require animals to remember all details of those experiences. Reasoning What conclusion would the neuroscientist’s theory about memory most strongly support? The neuroscientist asserts that the evolutionary function of memory is to help animals learn to react appropriately by drawing on generalizations from similar experiences they have had. If memory is to serve this function, drawing on generalizations must actually help animals learn to react more appropriately than they otherwise would, even when they do not remember all the details of past experiences.

A. Even if no animal ever recalls all the details of any past experience, animals could still learn through generalizations, as the neuroscientist claims.

B. This statement could be false even if all of what the neuroscientist says is true. Even if it were never helpful for any animal to recall every detail of all its past experiences, animals could still benefit by learning through generalizations.

C. Generalizations from experiences might be made while the experiences are occurring, so that only the generalizations and not the details need to be remembered.

D. The neuroscientist only claims that remembering perfect details is not required for memory to serve its function, not that such perfect recall is incompatible with memory serving its function.

E. Correct. If the evolutionary function of memory is to help animals react more appropriately by drawing on generalizations from past experiences, it follows that animal memories can often successfully serve this function in this manner.

The correct answer is E.

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