Country X’s recent stock-trading scandal should not diminish investors’ confidence in the country’s stock market. For one thing, the discovery of the scandal confirms thatCountry X has a strong regulatory system, as the following considerations show. In any stock market, some fraudulent activity is inevitable. If a stock market is well regulated, anysignificant stock-trading fraud in it will very likely be discovered. This deters potential perpetrators and facilitates improvement in regulatory processes.In the argument, the portion in boldface plays which of the following roles?
Delta Products Inc. has recently switched at least partly from older technologies using fossil fuels to new technologies powered by electricity. The question has been raised whether it can be concluded that, for a given level of output, Delta’s operation now causes less fossil fuel to be consumed than it did formerly. The answer,clearly, is yes, since the amount of fossil fuel used to generate the electricity needed to power the new technologies is less than the amount needed to power the older technologies, provided level of output is held constant.In the argument given, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?
Although the discount stores in Goreville’s central shopping district are expected to closewithin five years as a result of competition from a SpendLess discount department store that just opened, those locations will not stay vacant for long. In the five years since the opening of Colson’s, a nondiscount department store, a new store has opened at the location of every store in the shopping district that closed because it could not compete with Colson’s.Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
Veterinarians generally derive some of their income from selling several manufacturers’ lines of pet-care products. Knowing that pet owners rarely throw away mail from their pet’s veterinarian unread, one manufacturer of pet-care products offered free promotional materials on its products to veterinarians for mailing to their clients. Very few veterinarians accepted the offer, however, even though the manufacturer’s products are of high quality.Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the veterinarians’ reaction to the manufacturer’s promotional scheme?