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    本题由lindy提供
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According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM), which is designed to be adopted

consistently throughout an organization and to improve customer service by using sampling theory to reduce the variability of a product's quality, can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. As Drucker notes, TQM's scientific approach is consistent with the statistical sampling techniques of the "rationalist" school of scientific management, and the organizational structure associated with TQM is consistent with the social and psychological emphases of the "human relations" school of management.

However, TQM cannot simply be grafted onto these systems or onto certain other non-TQM management systems. Although, as Drucker contends, TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability, TQM requires fundamentally different strategies. While the other management systems referred to use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term, TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent. For example, lower prices not only benefit consumers but also enhance an organization's competitive edge and ensure its continuance, thus benefiting employees and owners. TQM's emphasis on shared interests is reflected in the decentralized decision-making, integrated production activity, and lateral structure of organizations that achieve the benefits of TQM.

The primary purpose of the passage is to


    (A) point out contradictions in a new management system

    (B) compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems

    (C) identify the organizational features shared by various management systems

    (D) explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems

    (E) explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems 


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答案:
D
(A)指出新的
管理系统自相矛盾的地方。文中,TQM本身这个管理系统没有问题。如果说有矛盾的话,应该是和其他管理系统的结合上有矛盾(可以结合却不能简单的嫁接)。 (B)比较和对比各种管理系统的目标。作者在文中提到,这些系统的目标都是相同的。定位在“TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability” (C)识别各种管理系统的组织特点。作者只提到了TQM的组织特点和以前的一种管理系统相似。并没有详细的解释这些组织特点。 (D)Correct. 解释一个特定的系统与其它管理系统的关系。 (E)解释一个特定的管理系统比之于其它系统的优点。其实作者并没有表现出自己的对于某种管理系统的偏爱,所以也谈不上优缺点之说。

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