According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM), which is designed to be adopted
However, TQM cannot simply be grafted onto these systems or onto certain other non-TQM management systems. Although, as Drucker contends, TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability, TQM requires fundamentally different strategies. While the other management systems referred to use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term, TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent. For example, lower prices not only benefit consumers but also enhance an organization's competitive edge and ensure its continuance, thus benefiting employees and owners. TQM's emphasis on shared interests is reflected in the decentralized decision-making, integrated production activity, and lateral structure of organizations that achieve the benefits of TQM.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) point out contradictions in a new management system
(B) compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems
(C) identify the organizational features shared by various management systems
(D) explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems
(E) explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems
- 【OG18-P680-668题】In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.
- Following several years of declining advertising sales, the Greenville Times reorganized its advertising sales force two years ago. Before the reorganization, the sales force was organized geographically, with some sales representatives concentrating on city-center businesses and others concentrating on different outlying regions. The reorganization attempted to increase the sales representatives’ knowledge of clients’ businesses by having each sales representative deal with only one type of industry or of retailing. After the reorganization, advertising sales increased.In assessing whether the improvement in advertising sales can properly be attributed to the reorganization, it would be helpful to find out each of the following EXCEPT:
- The author of the passage would most likely agree with which of the following statements about the link between increased solar activity and certain seasonal weather changes on the Earth?
- The passage provides information to support which of the following statement about La Nina?
- X: In order to reduce the amount of plastic in landfills, legislatures should impose a ban on the use of plastics for packaging goods.Y: Impossible! Plastic packaging is necessary for public safety. Consumers will lose all of the safety features that plastic offers, chiefly tamper-resistant closures and shatterproof bottles.Which of the following best describes the weak point in Y's response to X's proposal?