The modern multinational corporation is described as having originated when the owner-managers of nineteenth-century British firms carrying on international trade
transactions is assumed to have been too low and the communications and transport of their day too primitive to make comparisons with modern multinationals interesting.
In reality, however, early trading companies successfully purchased and outfitted ships, built and operated offices and warehouses, manufactured trade goods for use abroad, maintained trading posts and production facilities overseas, procured goods for import, and sold those goods both at home and in other countries. The large volume of transactions associated with these activities seems to have necessitated hierarchical management structures well before the advent of modern communications and transportation. For example, in the Hudson's Bay Company, each trading outpost was managed by a salaried agent, who carried out the trade with the Native Americans, managed day-to-day operations, and oversaw the post's workers and servants. One chief agent, answerable to the Court of Directors in London through the correspondence committee, was appointed with control over all of the agents on the bay.
The early trading companies did differ strikingly from modern multinationals in many respects. They depended heavily on the national governments of their home countries and thus characteristically acted abroad to promote national interests. Their top managers were typically owners with a substantial minority share, whereas senior managers’ holdings in modern multinationals are usually insignificant. They operated in a preindustrial world, grafting a system of capitalist international trade onto a premodern system of artisan and peasant production. Despite these differences, however, early trading companies organized effectively in remarkably modern ways and merit further study as analogues of more modern structures.
The passage suggests that modern multinationals differ from early chartered
A. the top managers of modern multinationals own stock in their own companies rather than simply receiving a salary
B. modern multinationals depend on a system of capitalist international trade rather than on less modern trading systems
C. modern multinationals have operations in a number of different foreign countries rather than merely in one or two
D. the operations of modern multinationals are highly profitable despite the more stringent environmental and safety regulations of modern governments
E. the overseas operations of modern multinationals are not governed by the national interests of their home countries
- 【OG18-P680-668题】In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.
- Following several years of declining advertising sales, the Greenville Times reorganized its advertising sales force two years ago. Before the reorganization, the sales force was organized geographically, with some sales representatives concentrating on city-center businesses and others concentrating on different outlying regions. The reorganization attempted to increase the sales representatives’ knowledge of clients’ businesses by having each sales representative deal with only one type of industry or of retailing. After the reorganization, advertising sales increased.In assessing whether the improvement in advertising sales can properly be attributed to the reorganization, it would be helpful to find out each of the following EXCEPT:
- The author of the passage would most likely agree with which of the following statements about the link between increased solar activity and certain seasonal weather changes on the Earth?
- The passage provides information to support which of the following statement about La Nina?
- X: In order to reduce the amount of plastic in landfills, legislatures should impose a ban on the use of plastics for packaging goods.Y: Impossible! Plastic packaging is necessary for public safety. Consumers will lose all of the safety features that plastic offers, chiefly tamper-resistant closures and shatterproof bottles.Which of the following best describes the weak point in Y's response to X's proposal?