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本题由lindy提供
2375 次学习

During the nineteenth century, occupational information about women that was provided by the United States census--a population count conducted each

decade--became more detailed and precise in response to social changes. Through 1840, simple enumeration by household mirrored a home-based agricultural economy and hierarchical social order: the head of the household (presumed male or absent) was specified by name, whereas other household members were only indicated by the total number of persons counted in various categories, including occupational categories. Like farms, most enterprises were family-run, so that the census measured economic activity as an attribute of the entire household, rather than of individuals.

The 1850 census, partly responding to antislavery and women's rights movements, initiated the collection of specific information about each individual in a household. Not until 1870 was occupational information analyzed by gender: the census superintendent reported 1.8 million women employed outside the home in "gainful and reputable occupations." In addition, he arbitrarily attributed to each family one woman "keeping house." Overlap between the two groups was not calculated until 1890, when the rapid entry of women into the paid labor force and social issues arising from industrialization were causing women's advocates and women statisticians to press for more thorough and accurate accounting of women's occupations and wages.

The passage suggests which of the following about the "women's

advocates and women statisticians" mentioned in the highlighted text?


    (A) They wanted to call attention to the lack of pay for women who worked in the home.

    (B) They believed that previous census information was inadequate and did not reflect certain economic changes in the United States.

    (C) They had begun to press for changes in census-taking methods as part of their participation in the antislavery movement.

    (D) They thought that census statistics about women would be more accurate if more women were employed as census officials.

    (E) They had conducted independent studies that disputed the official statistics provided by previous United States censuses.


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答案:
B
逻辑结构(
Logical structure) 旨在考察我们对作者写作目的更深层次的认识,以及文章本身的逻辑 该题应该定位在出现在高亮部分位置的那句话并联系整个文章的基调与背景解题。 (A)他们希望引起人们对在家的女人收入少这一问题的注意。整篇文章从没提到过在家的女人收入少(最后一句也只是说要精确计算)。虽然这可能是实际情况,但是文中不提就可以当做这个情况根本不存在。千万不要引入个人的思想,个人的常识于答题之中。 (B)Correct。他们认为以前的普查信息是不全面的,也不能反应某些美国的经济变化。这个貌似翻译过来就显而易见了吧……..“女性倡议者和女性统计学家”的行为的起因是一种entry(原文:the rapid entry…cause…)。而这个entry就是一个描述美国社会女性地位的变化的词,和B选项恰好对应。 (C)他们开始要求让普查的方法进行改变并以此来作为他们参与反奴隶制度的一部分。从文中我们无从得知这些人是否参加了反奴隶制度。作为一部分这说在文中也无法找到。另外,这些女性统计学家并没有要求方法改变,而是要求考虑的更加全面,即考虑“overlap”。 (D)他们认为如果女性更多的聘请为普查官员,那么普查将会更准确。这个选项的杜撰成分很足,文中找不到这样的说辞。 (E)他们正在进行独立的有悖于以前统计数据研究。文中最后一句说他们“press”统计人员给出一个更为彻底的,精确的计算,并没有提及他们自己要去做一个独立的研究。

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