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本题由lindy提供
2288 次学习

During the nineteenth century, occupational information about women that was provided by the United States census--a population count conducted each

decade--became more detailed and precise in response to social changes. Through 1840, simple enumeration by household mirrored a home-based agricultural economy and hierarchical social order: the head of the household (presumed male or absent) was specified by name, whereas other household members were only indicated by the total number of persons counted in various categories, including occupational categories. Like farms, most enterprises were family-run, so that the census measured economic activity as an attribute of the entire household, rather than of individuals.

The 1850 census, partly responding to antislavery and women's rights movements, initiated the collection of specific information about each individual in a household. Not until 1870 was occupational information analyzed by gender: the census superintendent reported 1.8 million women employed outside the home in "gainful and reputable occupations." In addition, he arbitrarily attributed to each family one woman "keeping house." Overlap between the two groups was not calculated until 1890, when the rapid entry of women into the paid labor force and social issues arising from industrialization were causing women's advocates and women statisticians to press for more thorough and accurate accounting of women's occupations and wages.

Each of the following aspects of nineteenth-century United States censuses

is mentioned in the passage EXCEPT the


    (A) year in which data on occupations began to be analyzed by gender

    (B) year in which specific information began to be collected on individuals in addition to the head of the household

    (C) year in which overlap between women employed outside the home and women keeping house was first calculated

    (D) way in which the 1890 census measured women's income levels and educational backgrounds

    (E) way in which household members were counted in the 1840 census 


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答案:
D
支持主题(
Supporting ideas) 旨在考察我们对文章细节的认知。 因为文中所讨论的年份是1840~1890,都属于19世纪,所以该题目的细节几乎涉及整篇文章。定位比较困难,如果一定要定位,可以定位在第一句以后的整篇文章。注意题目问的是“except” (A)职业数据开始被按性别来分析的年份。原文第二段找到此句“Not until 1870 was occupational information analyzed by gender:” (B)除掉每个家庭的首脑的具体信息外开始编写每个人的具体信息的年份。原文第二段第一句“The 1850 census initiated the collection of specific information about each individual in a household. ” (C)第一次计算两类人(在家的女人和在外工作的女人)重叠部分信息的年份。因为“census superintendent”是任意指定的一名在家的女人,所以很有可能这个女人其实是在外工作的,所以这两类人有重叠部分。原文第二段找到此句“Overlap between the two groups was not calculated until 1890”。 (D)Correct。1890年人口普查测定收入和教育背景的方法。原文中没有提到测定收入一说(最后一句的wage只是说明了要求精确计算,没有提及如何计算),更没有提到教育背景。 (E)1840年的普查计算家庭成员的方法。原文第一段第二句解释了计算的方法(simple enumeration)。第三句还有个例子。

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