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本题由lindy提供
2276 次学习

During the nineteenth century, occupational information about women that was provided by the United States census--a population count conducted each

decade--became more detailed and precise in response to social changes. Through 1840, simple enumeration by household mirrored a home-based agricultural economy and hierarchical social order: the head of the household (presumed male or absent) was specified by name, whereas other household members were only indicated by the total number of persons counted in various categories, including occupational categories. Like farms, most enterprises were family-run, so that the census measured economic activity as an attribute of the entire household, rather than of individuals.

The 1850 census, partly responding to antislavery and women's rights movements, initiated the collection of specific information about each individual in a household. Not until 1870 was occupational information analyzed by gender: the census superintendent reported 1.8 million women employed outside the home in "gainful and reputable occupations." In addition, he arbitrarily attributed to each family one woman "keeping house." Overlap between the two groups was not calculated until 1890, when the rapid entry of women into the paid labor force and social issues arising from industrialization were causing women's advocates and women statisticians to press for more thorough and accurate accounting of women's occupations and wages.

The primary purpose of the passage is to


    (A) explain and critique the methods used by early statisticians

    (B) compare and contrast a historical situation with a current-day one

    (C) describe and explain a historical change

    (D) discuss historical opposition to an established institution

    (E) trace the origin of a contemporary controversy


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答案:
C
(A)解释和批
判统计学家统计的方法。作者采取的是陈述方法,或是描述。不带有明显的个人主观色彩。 (B)比较历史的一个情形和现在的一个情形。文中讲述的都是19世纪的职业信息情况,没有和现在联系起来。 (C)Correct。描述和解释一个历史上的变化。文章第一句就提到了,什么什么是为了应对或回应“social change” 这必然是一个历史性的“change”。作者写这篇文章的主要意思即是要展示和描述这个逐步完善的职业信息的过程。此作者不带有明显的个人意见,而是以描述为主。 (D)讨论历史上对一个已有制度异议。作者并没有讨论一个已有制度。 (E)追溯一个争论的起源。文章中并没有什么争论,而是一项信息的逐步完善的过程。

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