In a new book about the antiparty feeling of the early political leaders of the United States, Ralph Ketcham argues
Even during the first presidency (Washington's), however, the classical conception of virtuous leadership was being undermined by commercial forces that had been gathering since at least the beginning of the eighteenth century. Commerce--its profit-making, its self-interestedness, its individualism--became the enemy of these classical ideals. Although Ketcham does not picture the struggle in quite this way, he does rightly see Jackson's tenure (the seventh presidency) as the culmination of the acceptance of party, commerce, and individualism. For the Jacksonians, nonpartisanship lost its relevance, and under the direction of Van Buren, party gained a new legitimacy. The classical ideals of the first six Presidents became identified with a privileged aristocracy, an aristocracy that had to be overcome in order to allow competition between opposing political interests. Ketcham is so strongly committed to justifying the classical ideals, however, that he underestimates the advantages of their decline. For example, the classical conception of leadership was incompatible with our modern notion of the freedoms of speech and press, freedoms intimately associated with the legitimacy of opposing political parties.
Which of the following, if true, provides the LEAST support
(A) Many supporters of Jackson resisted the commercialization that could result from participation in a national economy.
(B) Protest against the corrupt and partisan nature of political parties in the United States subsided during Jackson's presidency.
(C) During Jackson's presidency the use of money became more common than bartering of goods and services.
(D) More northerners than southerners supported Jackson because southerners were opposed to the development of a commercial economy.
(E) Andrew Jackson did not feel as strongly committed to the classical ideals of leadership as George Washington had felt.
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