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本题由lindy提供
2659 次学习

In a new book about the antiparty feeling of the early political leaders of the United States, Ralph Ketcham argues

that the first six Presidents differed decisively from later Presidents because the first six held values inherited from the classical humanist tradition of eighteenth-century England. In this view, government was designed not to satisfy the private desires of the people but to make them better citizens; this tradition stressed the disinterested devotion of political leaders to the public good. Justice, wisdom, and courage were more important qualities in a leader than the ability to organize voters and win elections. Indeed, leaders were supposed to be called to office rather than to run for office. And if they took up the burdens of public office with a sense of duty, leaders also believed that such offices were naturally their due because of their social preeminence or their contributions to the country. Given this classical conception of leadership, it is not surprising that the first six Presidents condemned political parties. Parties were partial by definition, self-interested, and therefore serving something other than the transcendent public good.

Even during the first presidency (Washington's), however, the classical conception of virtuous leadership was being undermined by commercial forces that had been gathering since at least the beginning of the eighteenth century. Commerce--its profit-making, its self-interestedness, its individualism--became the enemy of these classical ideals. Although Ketcham does not picture the struggle in quite this way, he does rightly see Jackson's tenure (the seventh presidency) as the culmination of the acceptance of party, commerce, and individualism. For the Jacksonians, nonpartisanship lost its relevance, and under the direction of Van Buren, party gained a new legitimacy. The classical ideals of the first six Presidents became identified with a privileged aristocracy, an aristocracy that had to be overcome in order to allow competition between opposing political interests. Ketcham is so strongly committed to justifying the classical ideals, however, that he underestimates the advantages of their decline. For example, the classical conception of leadership was incompatible with our modern notion of the freedoms of speech and press, freedoms intimately associated with the legitimacy of opposing political parties.

According to the passage, the author and Ketcham agree on

which of the following points?


    (A) The first six Presidents held the same ideas about political parties as did later Presidents in the United States.

    (B) Classical ideals supported the growth of commercial forces in the United States.

    (C) The first political parties in the United States were formed during Van Buren's term in office.

    (D) The first six Presidents placed great emphasis on individualism and civil rights.

    (E) Widespread acceptance of political parties occurred during Andrew Jackson's presidency.


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答案:
E
这个题目定
位在第三段,只有在作者发表观点的段落才能看出作者的态度,即作者同意哪些观点,反对哪些观点。 (A)前6位总统和以后的美国总统对政党有相同的观点。两个人都认为前6位和以后的总统在对待政党问题上看法迥异。这个选项说反了。 (B)古典的理想支持在美国生长商业力量。定位在“Commerce--its profit-making, its self-interestedness, its individualism--became the enemy of these classical ideals. ”和其的一句“Although Ketcham does not picture the struggle in quite this way, he does rightly see Jackson's tenure (the seventh presidency) as the culmination of the acceptance of party, commerce, and individualism. ”显然看出,两个人都是不这么认为的。尤其是作者。 (C)在美国的第一个政党是在“Van Buren”的任期中建立的。关键词出现在这句话中“For the Jacksonians, nonpartisanship lost its relevance, and under the direction of Van Buren, party gained a new legitimacy. ”从中也可以看出政党是有了新的合法性。也说明了政党不是这个时候才建立的。 (D)前6位总统很强调公民权和利己主义。还是可以定位到选项B中的那句话,说明至少利己主义是在前6位总统时期是不被认同的。公民权文中没有被提到。 (E)Correct。在“Andrew Jackson”的任期政党被广泛接受。定位在“he does rightly see Jackson's tenure (the seventh presidency) as the culmination of the acceptance of party, commerce, and individualism. ”是作者对“Ketcham”观点的评价也是认同。同时说明了在“Andrew Jackson”时期,政党被广泛接受。

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