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本题由lindy提供
1083 次学习

The Black Death, a severe epidemic that ravaged fourteenth-century Europe, has intrigued scholars ever since Francis Gasquet's 1893 study contending

that this epidemic greatly intensified the political and religious upheaval that ended the Middle Ages. Thirty-six years later, historian George Coulton agreed but, paradoxically, attributed a silver lining to the Black Death: prosperity engendered by diminished competition for food, shelter, and work led survivors of the epidemic into the Renaissance and subsequent rise of modern Europe.

In the 1930s, however, Evgeny Kosminsky and other Marxist historians claimed the epidemic was merely an ancillary factor contributing to a general agrarian crisis stemming primarily from the inevitable decay of European feudalism. In arguing that this decline of feudalism was economically determined, the Marxist asserted that the Black Death was a relatively insignificant factor. This became the prevailing view until after the Second World War, when studies of specific regions and towns revealed astonishing mortality rates ascribed to the epidemic, thus restoring the central role of the Black Death in history.

This central role of the Black Death (traditionally attributed to bubonic plague brought from Asia) has been recently challenged from another direction. Building on bacteriologist John Shrewsbury's speculations about mislabeled epidemics, zoologist Graham Twigg employs urban case studies suggesting that the rat population in Europe was both too sparse and insufficiently migratory to have spread plague. Moreover, Twigg disputes the traditional trade-ship explanation for plague transmissions by extrapolating from data on the number of dead rats aboard Nile sailing vessels in 1912. The Black Death, which he conjectures was anthrax instead of bubonic plague, therefore caused far less havoc and fewer deaths than historians typically claim.

Although correctly citing the exacting conditions needed to start or spread bubonic plague, Twigg ignores virtually a century of scholarship contradictory to his findings and employs faulty logic in his single-minded approach to the Black Death. His speculative generalizations about the numbers of rats in medieval Europe are based on isolated studies unrepresentative of medieval conditions, while his unconvincing trade-ship argument overlooks land-based caravans, the overland migration of infected rodents, and the many other animals that carry plague.

The author's attitude toward Twigg's work is best characterized as

which of following?

    A.  dismissive

    B.  indifference

    C.  vindictive

    D.  cautious

    E.  Ambivalent

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答案:
A
作者对于Twi
gg的态度 定位到最后一段。 意思是 虽然twigger正确地确定了bubonic plague 这个疾病start和spread 的conditions,但是他ignores virtually a century of scholarship ,并且采取了faulty logic。他的study也是没有representativeness的,也overlook了一系列的东西。这里的有非常多的否定词,ignore;faulty logic; unrepresentative; overlook ;可见作者的本质上是否定Twigg的,他的研究不具科学性,因此对他的态度是dismissive(轻视的) 选项A 正确 选项B 漠不关心的 ,排除 选项C 怀恨的,排除 选项D 小心的,如果是小心的它就不会那么明显地说了大部分Twigg的不足, 选项E 矛盾的,排除

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