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    本题由lindy提供
4133次学习

Years before the advent of plate tectonics—the widely accepted theory, developed in the mid-1960s, that holds that the major features

of Earth's surface are created by the horizontal motions of Earth's outer shell, or lithosphere—a similar theory was rejected by the geological community. In 1912, Alfred Wegener proposed, in a widely debated theory that came to be called continental drift, that Earth's continents were mobile. To most geologists today, Wegener’s The Origin of Continents and Oceans appears an impressive and prescient document, containing several of the essential presumptions underlying plate tectonics theory: the horizontal mobility of pieces of Earth's crust; the essential difference between oceanic and continental crust; and a causal connection between horizontal displacements and the formation of mountain chains. Yet despite the considerable overlap between Wegener’s concepts and the later widely embraced plate tectonics theory, and despite the fact that continental drift theory presented a possible solution to the problem of the origin of mountains at a time when existing explanations were seriously in doubt, in its day Wegener’s theory was rejected by the vast majority of geologists.

Most geologists and many historians today believe that Wegener's theory was rejected because of its lack of an adequate mechanical basis. Stephen Jay Gould, for example, argues that continental drift theory was rejected because it did not explain how continents could move through an apparently oceanic floor. However, as Anthony Hallam has pointed out, many scientific phenomena, such as the ice ages, have been accepted before they could be fully explained. The most likely cause for the rejection of continental drift—a cause that hasbeen largely ignored because we consider Wegener's theory to have been validated by the theory of plate tectonics—is the nature of the evidence that was put forward to support it. Most of Wegener's evidence consisted of homol0gies—similarities of patterns and forms based on direct observations of rocks in the field, supported by the use of hammers, hand lenses, and field notebooks. In contrast, the data supporting plate tectonics were impressively geophysical—instrumental| determinations of the physical properties of Earth garnered through the use of seismographs, magnetometers, and computers.

The author cites Hallam (see highlighted text) on the ice

ages primarily in order to

    A. provide an example of a geologic phenomenon whose precise causes are not understood by geologists today
    B. criticize the geological community for an apparent lack of consistency in its responses to new theories
    C. offer evidence held to undermine a common view of why Wegener's theory was not accepted in its day

    D. give an example of a modern scientist who believes that Wegener’s theory was rejected because it failed to adequately explain the mechanical basis of continental drift
    E. support Gould's rationale for why Wegener's theory was rejected by most geologists in the early twentieth century

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答案:
C
Logical Map(结
构图) 1.Before the advent of the widely accepted theory, developed---a similar theory was rejected by the geological community. (1) 1912, Alfred Wegener (AW)proposed, in a widely debated theory ---continental drift---Earth's continents were mobile. (2)To most geologists today, AW’s( The Origin of Continents and Oceans )appears an impressive and prescient document, containing several of the essential presumptions underlying plate tectonics theory... (3) Yet despite the considerable overlap between AW’S concepts and the later widely embraced plate tectonics theory... in its day AW’S theory was rejected by the vast majority of geologists. 2. Most geologists and many historians today believe--- AW’s theory was rejected because lack---an adequate mechanical basis. (1) Stephen Jay Gould, argues that continental drift theory was rejected because it did not explain how continents could move through an apparently oceanic floor. (2)However, as Anthony Hallam has pointed out, many scientific phenomena---have been accepted---before they could be fully explained. The most likely cause for the rejection of continental drift---(ignore)because we consider AW’s theory to have been validated by the theory of plate tectonics—is the nature of the evidence--supports. (3) Most of AW’s evidence consisted of homologies(similarities of patterns and forms based on direct observations of rocks in the field)... (4)In contrast, the data (supporting plate tectonics) were impressively geophysical—instrumental| determinations of the physical properties of Earth garnered... 1.在广泛被接受理论(即版块构造学)出现之前,一个相似的理论被地质学界反对。 (1)1912年,AW在广泛debated 理论(即大陆漂移说)提到:地球版块是移动的。 (2)对大多数今天的地质学家来说,AW’s “关于海洋陆地起源”是一个impressive 和精确的文件,这里面包含了一些主要的(基于版块构造学)假设...(后面有几个假设) (3)然而:尽管有重叠存在于AW’s的观点和广泛持有的版块构造理论之间,尽管大陆漂移说存在疑问;但是AW’s的理论在他的时代被大多数地质学家反对了。 2.大多数地质学家和历史学家认为:AW’s的理论被反对的原因是:缺少精确的“力学基础”。 (1)SJ 争论:大陆漂移说被反对是以为它不能解释版块能够移动通过一个透明的海洋层。 (2)然而:AH指出:许多科学现象被接受是在它们能够被完全解释清楚之前。反对版块漂移说最可能的原因是(先前忽略掉的)我们考虑到AW’s理论被版块构造学支持确认,一直都是我们用来支持它的证据。 (3)大多数AW’s证据是由同源性组成的(基于在岩石观察领域类型,形式) (4)对比而言:支持版块构造的数据是很偏地质物理的... 根据题干,定位在这里: However, as Anthony Hallam has pointed out, many scientific phenomena, such as the ice ages, have been accepted before they could be fully explained.The most likely cause for the rejection of continental drift—a cause that has been largely ignored because we consider Wegener's theory to have been validated by the theory of plate tectonics—is the nature of the evidence that was put forward to support it. A. are not understood by geologists today文章没说不能被理解 B. new theories 新说法 C. offer evidence held to undermine a common view of why Wegener's theory was not accepted in its day 这里就是要支持AW的观点,C答案正好说明了这点;undermine D. it failed to adequately explain the mechanical basis 与文章不一致 E. support Gould's rationale... in the early twentieth century 未说道

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