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本题由lindy提供
3323 次学习

The modern multinational corporation is described as having originated when the owner-managers of nineteenth-century British firms carrying on international trade

were replaced by teams of salaried managers organized into hierarchies. Increases in the volume of transactions in such firms are commonly believed to have necessitated this structural change. Nineteenth-century inventions the steamship and the telegraph, by facilitating coordination of managerial activities, are described as key factors. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century chartered trading companies, despite the international scope of their activities, are usually considered irrelevant to this discussion: the volume of their

transactions is assumed to have been too low and the communications and transport of their day too primitive to make comparisons with modern multinationals interesting.

In reality, however, early trading companies successfully purchased and outfitted ships, built and operated offices and warehouses, manufactured trade goods for use abroad, maintained trading posts and production facilities overseas, procured goods for import, and sold those goods both at home and in other countries. The large volume of transactions associated with these activities seems to have necessitated hierarchical management structures well before the advent of modern communications and transportation. For example, in the Hudson's Bay Company, each trading outpost was managed by a salaried agent, who carried out the trade with the Native Americans, managed day-to-day operations, and oversaw the post's workers and servants. One chief agent, answerable to the Court of Directors in London through the correspondence committee, was appointed with control over all of the agents on the bay.

The early trading companies did differ strikingly from modern multinationals in many respects. They depended heavily on the national governments of their home countries and thus characteristically acted abroad to promote national interests. Their top managers were typically owners with a substantial minority share, whereas senior managers’ holdings in modern multinationals are usually insignificant. They operated in a preindustrial world, grafting a system of capitalist international trade onto a premodern system of artisan and peasant production. Despite these differences, however, early trading companies organized effectively in remarkably modern ways and merit further study as analogues of more modern structures.

With which of the following generalizations regarding management structures would

the author of the passage most probably agree?

    A. Hierarchical management structures are the most efficient management structures possible in a modern context.
    B. Firms that routinely have a high volume of business transactions find it necessary to adopt hierarchical management structures.
    C. Hierarchical management structures cannot be successfully implemented without modern communications and transportation.
    D. Modern multinational firms with a relatively small volume of business transactions usually do not have hierarchically organized management structures.
    E. Companies that adopt hierarchical management structures usually do so in order to facilitate expansion into foreign trade.

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答案:
B
第一结构:
The modern multinational corporation is described as having originated (1)Increases in the volume of transactions in such firms are commonly believed... (2)Sixteenth-and seventeenth—century chartered trading companies... 第二结构:In reality, however, early trading companies successfully purchased and outfitted ships... (1)The large volume of transactions... (2)For example, in the Hudson's Bay Company,... 第三结构:The early trading companies did differ strikingly... (1)They depended heavily on ... 第四结构:Despite these differences ,however, early trading companies organized... (一般细节题,根据选项回文定位) A.Hierarchical management structures are the most efficient management structures possible in a modern context.(绝对词) B.Firms that routinely have a high volume of business transactions find it necessary to adopt hierarchical management structures.(与第2结构第一层次内容相符) C.Hierarchical management structures cannot be successfully implemented without modern communications and transportation.(文章未提及) D.Modern multinational firms with a relatively small volume of business transactions usually do not have hierarchically organized management structures.(文章未提及) E.Companies that adopt hierarchical management structures usually do so in order to facilitate expansion into foreign trade.(文章未提及)

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