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【GMAT改错】高频知识点考点全面解读:虚拟语气出题点分析

申友 2020-08-25 14:22:20 浏览量(197)

虚拟语气:主要用来表示假设,而非客观存在的事实,所陈述的是一个条件,不一定是事实,甚至完全与事实相反。其实就是表示说话者做出的假设而非事实,或难以实现的情况,甚至表达彻底相反的概念。此外如需表达主观愿望或某种强烈的感情时,也可用虚拟语气。




一.条件状语从句中谓语的基本形式


例题:

Recent essays by Garrison Keillor, the humorist and host of the public radio show A Prairie Home Companion, describes what might happen if Huns, Goths, and Visigoths were to invade Chicago.


A.describes what might happen if Huns, Goths, and Visigoths were to invade

B.describes what would happen if Huns, Goths, and Visigoths invaded

C.describes what would happen if Huns, Goths, and Visigoths would have invaded

D.describe what might happen if Huns, Goths, and Visigoths were to invade

E.describe what happen if Huns, Goths, and Visigoths invade


考点:主谓一致,动词形式-虚拟语气


句意:幽默作家、公共广播节目(A Prairie Home Companion)的主持人加里森·凯勒最近发表的文章,描述了如果匈奴人、哥特人和西哥特人入侵芝加哥,可能会发生什么。


题干句子成分分析:主句:主语Recent essays ,谓语 describes,宾语从句 what might happen if Huns,if引导条件状语从句:主语Huns, Goths, and Visigoths,复合谓语were to invade,宾语Chicago。


主谓不一致,主语是Recent essays为复数形式,因此describe不需加s.直接排除A.B.C

D.主谓一致,虚拟语气-条件状语中主句的谓语形式不正确

E.虚拟语气-条件状语中主句和从句的谓语形式都不正确


二、名词性从句(主语从句,宾语从句,同位语从句,表语从句)


表示主观判断,推测和表示要求、建议、命令的虚拟语气,从句中的谓语要直接省略should,加动词原形。


1.主语从句:在it is adj (essential, imperative, important, necessary, urgent, vital等 )+ that +V原,主语从句的谓语动词应用动词原形(省略should).

例:It is important that we fight against piracy.


2.宾语从句:有些表示主观判断,推测和表示要求、建议、命令的动词后面接宾语从句,从句中的谓语应省掉should,直接用动词原形。要求跟虚拟宾语从句的动词包括advise,demand,require,insist,motion,recommend,suggest(建议,如果其意思是暗示时,就无需用虚拟语气),mandate,order.

例:I suggest we start off right now.


3.同位语从句+表语从句:有些表示主观判断,推测和表示要求、建议、命令的名词后面接宾同位语从句+表语从句,从句中的谓语应省掉should,直接用动词原形。要求跟虚拟宾语主语从句+表语从句的名词有:advice,demand,requirement,motion,recommendation,suggestion,mandate,order,proposal等

同位语从句: She makes a proposal that we make a music video in one week.

表语从句:Her proposal is that we make a music video in one week.


例题:

If a drug that is already on the market has the potential to help adults and children who have the same disease, or if it is widely used in children and the absence of labeling seems dangerous, the FDA can require that the drug undergo pediatric study.

A.that the drug undergo

B.that the drug undergoes

C.that the drug is to undergo

D.the drug undergoing

E.the drug to have to undergo


句意:如果一种已经上市的药物有可能帮助患有相同疾病的成人和儿童,或者它被广泛用于儿童,而没有标签似乎是危险的,美国食品药品监督管理局可以要求该药物进行儿科研究。


考点:动词形式-虚拟语气

这道题比较简单,因为根据上面讲到的宾语从句中的谓语形式,需省掉should,加动词原形,那么看到require,便可直接排除B..C.D.E.正确答案为A.


三、省掉if的虚拟条件句


在表虚拟语气的if从句中,如果were,had,should这三个动词作谓语时,可以省去if,把主语和谓语倒装过来表示虚拟语气条件。


结构:if + 主语+ were/should/had+verb were/should/had + 主语 + Verb


例句:If he were an outstanding movie director, he would make a great movie.

Were he an outstanding movie director, he would make a great movie.


例题:

Were it not for the fusion-powered heat and radiation that rush from its core, instead its own weight would cause a star to collapse

A.instead its own weight would cause a star to collapse

B.instead a star would have collapsed under its own weight

C.a star would have to be collapsing under its own weight

D.a star would collapse under its own weight

E.its own weight would have caused a star’s collapse


句意:如果不是由于核子发出的聚变动力的热量和辐射,恒星会在自重的作用下坍塌。


分析:were it是if的省略结构,补充完整是if it were....,主句用情态动词+动词原形。并且主句要立马给出主语。因此可直接排除ABE。

B.表达不够简洁,wordy

D.正确


总结


虚拟语气比较简单,只要大家记住主从句的谓语形式,便可直接排除一些选项,然后,再通过对比法,选出最优选项。



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